谢锋:香港国安立法刻不容缓 中央维护国安有权有责 国际社会应该安心放心
2020/05/25

  2020年5月25日,外交部驻港公署特派员谢锋就香港国安立法向外国驻港领团、商会、媒体和驻港国际组织代表吹风并现场回答提问,主要内容如下:

  一、香港国安立法天经地义、刻不容缓

  国家安全是一国安身立命之本,制定国安立法是一国神圣不可侵犯的主权,没有国家会对危害本国安全的违法行为听之任之。在这个问题上,国际社会只应有一把尺子,不能容许双重标准和霸权逻辑,不能把本国谋求国家安全的各种措施视为理所当然,动辄拿国家安全做幌子,无所不用其极,反过来却对别国依法堵塞国安漏洞污名化、妖魔化,不能把国家安全变成个别国家的特权和借口。

 

  基本法颁布已经30年,香港回归已经23年,但基本法23条立法在内外反中乱港势力百般阻挠下至今没有完成,导致香港处于世所罕见的“不设防”状态。香港作为国家的一部分,总不能永远不履行维护国家安全的宪制责任,总不能永远是座“不设防”的城市,大门洞开、漏洞百出,总不能变成独立半独立的政治实体甚至对内地进行分裂、颠覆、渗透、破坏的桥头堡,总不能任由香港反中乱港分子勾结外国反华势力制裁香港、对抗国家,总不能让“港独”势力畅行其道、任由极端分子实施暴力恐怖活动而坐视不管!

 

  二、中央维护国家安全有权有责、合理合法

  中央政府对维护香港特区的宪制秩序负有最大责任,对“一国两制”全面准确贯彻落实和特区基本法的正确实施负有最大责任。在国家安全受到现实威胁和严重损害,特区政府难以自身完成立法的情况下,中央政府果断出手,在国家层面进行涉港国家安全立法,是形势所迫,是内外反中乱港势力所逼。

 

  国家安全立法属于国家立法权力。中央政府通过基本法第 23 条授予香港特区维护国家安全的部分立法权,并不改变国家安全立法属于中央事权的属性,也不因此丧失在维护国家安全方面应有的权力。全国人大作为国家最高权力机关,依据宪法和基本法作出关于建立健全香港特区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制的决定,具有坚实法律基础和最高法律效力。

 

  三、国安立法有助于确保“一国两制”行稳致远

  全国人大作出有关决定,目的就是拨乱反正,堵上香港国家安全的致命漏洞,筑牢“一国”之基,最大限度扫除香港发展道路上的障碍、陷阱和威胁,最大限度确保香港在坚守“一国”之本的同时更好发挥“两制”之利,最大限度维护港人的根本利益和依法享有的广泛权利和自由。

 

  国家安全有保障,“一国两制”的落实才会全面准确、运行顺畅,香港市民才会更有安全感、确定感、幸福感,香港的发展才会更美好、更稳定、更繁荣,包括国际社会在内所有“持份者”的利益才会更有保障。

  四、国际社会应该对香港国安立法安心放心

  中央政府贯彻“一国两制”坚持两点,一是确保“一国两制”方针不会变、不动摇;二是确保“一国两制”实践不走样、不变形。

 

  香港国安立法后,“一国两制”方针不会变,香港实行的资本主义制度不会变,高度自治不会变,特区法律制度不会变,不会影响特区司法机关享有的独立司法权和终审权。

  全国人大决定制定有关法律,针对的是那些分裂国家、颠覆国家政权、组织实施恐怖活动及外国和境外势力干预特区事务的行为,惩治的是极少数涉嫌危害国家安全的犯罪分子,保护的是遵纪守法的绝大多数香港市民。任何维护国家安全的工作和执法,都将严格依照法律规定、符合法定职权、遵循法定程序,不会侵犯香港居民、法人和其他组织的合法权益。

 

  立法不仅不会影响特区居民依法享有的言论、新闻、出版、集会等各项权利和自由,反而会让这些权利和自由在安全环境下得到更好行使;不仅不会影响各国驻港领馆、商会、媒体等依法履职运作,反而有利于优化香港与各国交流合作的社会氛围,保障各国企业依法经营和商务往来;立法有助于消除本地和外国商界对“暴恐”、“揽抄”等香港社会乱象的极度担忧,为外国投资者营造法治更加健全、预期更加稳定可靠的营商环境。

  对绝大多数在港爱港、遵纪守法的香港居民和外国人士而言,完全没有必要自己吓自己、“杞人忧天”、对号入座;千万不要被别人吓唬甚至被别有用心者误导利用;尤其不应该以讹传讹去吓唬别人,参加“反中乱港”势力的抹黑鼓噪,将国安立法污名化、妖魔化,甚至干预阻挠、煽动对抗。

 

  五、中国政府维护国家主权安全发展利益的决心坚定不移,贯彻“一国两制”方针的决心坚定不移,反对任何外部势力干涉香港事务的决心坚定不移

  在港国际机构及其代表的国家或组织都是“一国两制”的受益者和香港繁荣稳定的持份者。“一国两制”行稳致远、香港繁荣稳定是各方利益最大公约数。

 

  希望各方认清香港问题的是非曲直,实事求是,独立判断,尊重事实,尊重法理,冷静、客观、公正看待中国全国人大决定,理解、尊重和支持中方依法在港维护国家安全的努力,避免误读误判。

  所有持份者应该从香港繁荣稳定和自身在港利益出发,不做伤害香港、伤害自身在港利益的傻事,同求稳定、要发展、护法治的绝大多数香港市民站在一起,与分裂势力、暴恐分子、外部干预势力划清界限,共同守护好、建设好香港家园。

 

  国际社会应该恪守尊重主权和领土完整、不干涉内政等国际法原则和国际关系基本准则,全面准确理解、真心实意支持“一国两制”,不以任何方式干扰、阻挠中国维护国家安全,不以任何方式干预香港事务、干涉中国内政。

  吹风后,谢特派员回答了柬埔寨、埃及驻港总领事、欧盟驻港办事处主任,日本、阿拉伯在港商会负责人以及路透社、香港无线新闻等媒体关于香港国安立法背景、时机和目的、立法程序和时间表、国安立法对香港自治、居民权利自由、法治、营商环境等方面影响、相关立法的具体内容和执行机制等方面的提问。

  出席当日吹风会暨中外记者会的包括:法国、德国、英国、日本、俄罗斯、巴西、新加坡等58国驻港总领事或高级代表、欧盟驻港办事处主任,美国、日本、英国、阿拉伯、澳大利亚等15家在港国际商会负责人,纽约时报、华尔街日报、金融时报、CNN、NHK、路透社、彭博社、经济学人、南华早报、无线电视、凤凰卫视、文汇报、大公报、中央广播电视总台、新华社、中新社、中国日报等17家国际、香港和内地媒体代表以及国际清算银行、联合国难民署、国际移民组织等国际机构驻港办事处负责人等共130多人。

  附:谢锋特派员吹风稿(中英文)

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  谢锋特派员就香港国安立法向外国驻港领团商会

  媒体举行吹风会暨中外记者会讲话稿

  (2020年5月25日 下午3:00)

  外国驻港领团、商会、媒体和驻港国际组织的朋友们,

  大家下午好!

  今天请大家来,主要是就第十三届中国全国人大三次会议审议《全国人民代表大会关于建立健全香港特别行政区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制的决定(草案)》进行吹风并接受提问,希望有助于大家全面准确理解。

  我今天主要讲5点,第一,香港国安立法天经地义、刻不容缓;第二,中央政府维护国家安全有权有责、合理合法;第三,国安立法有助于确保“一国两制”行稳致远;第四,国际社会应该对香港国安立法安心放心;第五,中国政府维护国家主权安全发展利益的决心坚定不移。

  首先,香港国安立法天经地义、刻不容缓。

  国家安全是一国安身立命之本,制定国安立法是一国神圣不可侵犯的主权。世界上无论是单一制国家,还是联邦制国家,无论是普通法国家,还是大陆法国家,都制定有国家安全法,或在其法律中明订条文,防范、制止和惩治危害国家安全的违法行为。

  没有国家会对危害本国安全的违法行为听之任之。在这个问题上,国际社会只应有一把尺子,不能容许双重标准和霸权逻辑,不能把本国谋求国家安全的各种措施视为理所当然,动辄拿国安做幌子,无所不用其极,反过来却对别国依法堵塞国家安全漏洞污名化、妖魔化,不能把国家安全变成个别国家的特权和借口。

  基本法已经颁布30年,香港已经回归23年,但基本法23条立法在内外反中乱港势力百般阻挠下至今没有完成,加上香港原有相关法律长期处于“休眠”状态,特区维护国家安全的机构设置、力量配备、权力配置存在严重缺失,导致香港处于世所罕见的“不设防”状态。

  在去年“修例风波”中,“港独”组织和激进分离势力公然鼓吹“香港独立”,围攻中央驻港机构,瘫痪政府管治和立法会运作,实施触目惊心甚至具有恐怖主义性质的暴力犯罪;一些外部势力肆意插手香港事务、利用香港从事危害中国国家安全的活动,严重挑战“一国两制”原则底线,严重威胁香港国土安全、政治安全和公共安全,严重威胁中国国家主权、统一和领土完整,对中国国家安全构成重大而紧迫的现实危害,成为中国国家安全的一个突出风险点。

  香港作为国家的一部分,总不能永远不履行维护国家安全的宪制责任,总不能永远是座“不设防”的城市,大门洞开、漏洞百出,总不能变成独立半独立的政治实体甚至对内地进行分裂、颠覆、渗透、破坏的桥头堡,总不能任由香港反中乱港分子勾结外国反华势力制裁香港、对抗国家,总不能让“港独”势力畅行其道、任由极端分子实施暴力恐怖活动而坐视不管!

  第二,中央维护国家安全有权有责、合理合法。

  中央政府对维护香港特区的宪制秩序负有最大责任,对“一国两制”全面准确贯彻落实和特区基本法的正确实施负有最大责任。在国家安全受到现实威胁和严重损害,特区政府难以自身完成立法的情况下,中央政府果断出手,在国家层面进行涉港国家安全立法,是形势所迫,是内外反中乱港势力所逼。

  国家安全立法属于国家立法权力。中央政府通过基本法第 23 条授予香港特区维护国家安全的部分立法权,并不改变国家安全立法属于中央事权的属性,也并不因此丧失在维护国家安全方面应有的权力。

  宪法第 31 条规定,“国家在必要时得设立特别行政区,在特别行政区内实行的制度按具体情况由全国人民代表大会以法律规定”。全国人大作为国家最高权力机关,有权力也有责任依据宪法和基本法,根据香港特区的实际情况和需要履行维护国家安全的宪制责任,包括制定与香港特区有关的维护国家安全法律,构建有关法律制度和执行机制。人大作出关于建立健全香港特区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制的决定,具有坚实法律基础和最高法律效力。

  第三,国安立法有助于确保“一国两制”行稳致远。

  “一国两制”的初心和使命是维护国家主权统一和领土完整,维护香港长期繁荣稳定。“一国”是实行“两制”的前提和基础,“两制”从属和派生于“一国”并统一于“一国”之内。“一国”原则出现动摇,“两制”就无从谈起。

  此次全国人大做出决定,目的就是拨乱反正,堵上香港国家安全的致命漏洞,筑牢“一国”之基,最大限度扫除香港发展道路上的障碍、陷阱和威胁,最大限度确保香港在坚守“一国”之本的同时更好发挥“两制”之利,最大限度维护港人的根本利益和依法享有的广泛权利和自由。

  国家安全有保障,“一国两制”的落实才会全面准确、运行顺畅,香港市民才会更有安全感、确定感、幸福感,香港的发展才会更美好、更稳定、更繁荣,包括国际社会在内所有“持份者”的利益才会更有保障。

  第四,国际社会应该对香港国安立法安心放心。

  中央政府贯彻“一国两制”坚持两点,一是确保“一国两制”方针不会变、不动摇;二是确保“一国两制”实践不走样、不变形。

  香港国安立法后,“一国两制”方针不会变,香港实行的资本主义制度不会变,高度自治不会变,特区法律制度不会变,不会影响特区司法机关享有的独立司法权和终审权。

  全国人大决定制定有关法律,针对的只是那些分裂国家、颠覆国家政权、组织实施恐怖活动及外国和境外势力干预特区事务的行为,惩治的是极少数涉嫌危害国家安全的犯罪分子,保护的是遵纪守法的绝大多数香港市民。任何维护国家安全的工作和执法,都将严格依照法律规定、符合法定职权、遵循法定程序,不会侵犯香港居民、法人和其他组织的合法权益。

  立法不仅不会影响特区居民依法享有的言论、新闻、出版、集会等各项权利和自由,反而会让这些权利和自由在安全环境下得到更好行使;不仅不会影响各国驻港领馆、商会、媒体等依法履职运作,反而有利于优化香港与各国交流合作的社会氛围,保障各国企业依法经营和商务往来;立法有助于消除本地和外国商界人士对“暴恐”、“揽抄”等香港社会乱象的极度担忧,为外国投资者营造法治更加健全、预期更加稳定可靠的营商环境。

  对绝大多数在港爱港、遵纪守法的香港居民和外国人士而言,完全没有必要自己吓自己、“杞人忧天”、对号入座;千万不要被别人吓唬甚至被别有用心者误导利用;尤其不应该以讹传讹去吓唬别人,参加“反中乱港”势力的抹黑鼓噪,将国安立法污名化、妖魔化,甚至干预阻挠。

  第五,中国政府维护国家主权安全发展利益的决心坚定不移,贯彻“一国两制”方针的决心坚定不移,反对任何外部势力干涉香港事务的决心坚定不移。

  在座各位代表的国家或国际组织都是“一国两制”的受益者,是香港繁荣稳定的持份者。“一国两制”行稳致远、香港繁荣稳定是各方利益的最大公约数。

  我们希望大家认清香港问题的是非曲直,实事求是,独立判断,尊重事实,尊重法理,冷静、客观、公正看待中国全国人大决定,理解、尊重和支持中方依法在港维护国家安全的努力,避免误读误判。

  我们要求所有持份者从香港繁荣稳定和自身在港利益出发,不做伤害香港、伤害自身在港利益的傻事,同求稳定、要发展、护法治的绝大多数香港市民站在一起,与分裂势力、暴恐分子、外部干预势力划清界限,共同守护好、建设好香港这个家园。

  我们呼吁国际社会恪守相互尊重主权和领土完整、不干涉内政等国际法原则和国际关系基本准则,全面准确理解、真心实意支持“一国两制”,不以任何方式干扰、阻挠中国维护国家安全,不以任何方式干预香港事务、干涉中国内政。

  下面我愿回答大家的提问。

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  Opening Remarks by Commissioner Xie Feng at the Press Conference

  on the Hong Kong-related Agenda of the National People’s Congress Session

  25 May 2020, Hong Kong

  Dear friends from the consular corps, chambers of commerce, international organizations and the press,

  Good afternoon.

  Thank you for joining us at the Commissioner’s Office. At the press conference today, I’d like to brief you on and answer any questions you may have about the deliberation of the “draft decision on establishing and improving the legal system and enforcement mechanisms for the HKSAR to safeguard national security” at the third session of the 13th National People’s Congress (NPC), so as to help you better understand it.

  In short, here are five key messages: First, national security legislation for Hong Kong is right and proper and of greatest urgency. Second, it is just and legitimate for the Central Government to safeguard national security, which is both within its power and its obligation. Third, national security legislation will ensure the enduring success of “One Country, Two Systems”. Fourth, the international community can rest assured about the legislation for Hong Kong. And fifth, the Chinese government is rock-firm in upholding national sovereignty, security and development interests. Now let me explain.

  First, national security legislation for Hong Kong is right and proper and of greatest urgency.

  National security is the very foundation for a country to survive and thrive, and enacting national security legislation is an exercise of a nation’s sacrosanct sovereignty. All countries, be they unitary or federal, of common or Continental law systems, have national security laws or specific provisions to prevent, prohibit and punish illegal acts that endanger national security.

  No country will ever turn a blind eye to illegal acts that may jeopardize its national security. This is a consensus of the international community, which allows no double standards or hegemonic logic. It is simply unfair for any country to stigmatize and demonize others’ efforts to plug national security loopholes, while it considers its own national security measures at home as completely justified and even cites “national security” as a pretext against others. In other words, national security should not be a privilege for only a few, or exploited as an excuse.

  It has been 30 years since the promulgation of the Basic Law of the HKSAR and 23 years since Hong Kong’s return. But because of the obstruction by the forces trying to sow trouble in Hong Kong and China as a whole, the legislation required by Article 23 of the Basic Law is yet to materialize. Moreover, existing legal provisions in Hong Kong related to national security have long lain dormant. As a consequence, severe deficiencies abound in the institutional building, enforcement capacity and power allocation in the HKSAR for safeguarding national security, and Hong Kong remains an “unguarded” city, highly unusual in the world.

  During the unrest following the proposed amendment bill last year, organizations advocating “Hong Kong independence” and other radical separatists openly called for gaining independence from the country, stormed the Central Government’s institutions in the HKSAR, paralyzed the HKSAR Government’s governance and the LegCo, and committed violent crimes, some of which were terrorist in nature. To make things worse, some external forces meddled with Hong Kong affairs and carried out in the city activities jeopardizing China’s national security. All these have severely challenged the red line of “One Country, Two Systems”, undermined the political and public security in Hong Kong, and threatened China’s national sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity. They have posed a major and imminent danger to China’s national security.

  Hong Kong is part of China. It would be unacceptable if the city could never fulfill its constitutional obligation to safeguard national security, if it remained unguarded and full of loopholes, and if it was turned into an independent or semi-independent political entity and even a frontier for secession, subversion, infiltration and sabotage activities against the mainland. The troublemakers in Hong Kong cannot be allowed to collude with foreign anti-China forces to impose sanctions on the city and confront China. The “Hong Kong independence” separatists cannot be left unchecked, and the extremists cannot have a free pass to commit violent terrorist acts.

  Second, it is just and legitimate for the Central Government to safeguard national security, which is both within its power and its obligation.

  The Central Government holds the primary responsibility for upholding the constitutional order in the HKSAR, and ensuring full and faithful implementation of “One Country, Two Systems” and the Basic Law. When national security is at peril and the HKSAR Government has difficulty enacting relevant laws on its own because of the forces inciting chaos in Hong Kong and China at large, the Central Government has to act decisively, and enact at the state level national security legislation for Hong Kong.

  Legislation on national security falls within a state’s legislative power. While the Central Government authorizes the HKSAR to enact laws on its own to safeguard national security through Article 23 of the Basic Law, it does not change the fact that national security legislation is essentially within the purview of the Central Authorities, nor does it mean the Central Authorities have forfeited the power to uphold national security.

  As Article 31 of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China stipulates, “The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People’s Congress in the light of specific conditions.” As the supreme organ of state power, the NPC has the power and the obligation to fulfill its constitutional duty to safeguard national security in accordance with the Constitution and the Basic Law and in line with the reality and needs in the HKSAR, in ways including enacting national security legislation concerning the HKSAR, and establishing the relevant legal system and enforcement mechanisms. Therefore, the NPC’s decision to establish and improve the legal system and enforcement mechanisms for the HKSAR to safeguard national security has solid legal grounds and the highest legal effect.

  Third, national security legislation will ensure the enduring success of “One Country, Two Systems”.

  The original aspiration and mission of “One Country, Two Systems” is to uphold national sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity, and to maintain long-term prosperity and stability in Hong Kong. “One Country” is the prerequisite for and foundation of “Two Systems”, while “Two Systems” are subordinate to and derive from “One Country”. Should the “One Country” principle be undermined, “Two Systems” would be out of the question.

  The NPC’s decision is intended to set things right, plug the lethal loopholes in national security in Hong Kong, and reinforce the “One Country” foundation. It is to eradicate all potential obstacles, traps and threats impeding Hong Kong’s development, ensure Hong Kong to fully leverage the benefits of “Two Systems” while adhering to the “One Country” basis, and uphold Hong Kong citizens’ fundamental interests and extensive rights and freedoms enshrined in the law to the greatest extent possible.

  Only when national security is safeguarded can “One Country, Two Systems” be fully, faithfully and smoothly implemented, can Hong Kong citizens have a sense of security, certainty and happiness, can Hong Kong enjoy greater stability and prosperity, and can the interests of all stakeholders, the international community included, be better protected.

  Fourth, the international community can rest assured about the legislation for Hong Kong.

  The Central Government is committed to two principles in implementing “One Country, Two Systems”: First, to ensure the policy will remain unchanged; second, to ensure it will not be bent or distorted.

  National security legislation for Hong Kong will not change the “One Country, Two Systems” policy. It will not change the capitalist system or the high degree of autonomy of Hong Kong. It will not change the legal system in the HKSAR. Nor will it affect the independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication, exercised by the judiciary in Hong Kong.

  The NPC’s legislative decision targets only acts of secession, subverting state power and organizing and carrying out terrorist activities, as well as interference in the HKSAR’s internal affairs by external forces. It is the small minority of criminals jeopardizing national security that will be punished, while the overwhelming majority of law-abiding Hong Kong citizens will be protected. Any work or law enforcement efforts to safeguard national security will be conducted strictly in accordance with legal provisions, mandates and procedures, without prejudice to legitimate rights and interests of Hong Kong citizens, legal persons and other organizations.

  The legislation will not affect the rights and freedoms Hong Kong citizens enjoy under the law, such as the freedoms of speech, press, publication and assembly, but will only better guarantee them in a safe environment. It will not hinder the performance of duty by foreign consular corps, chambers of commerce and media in the city, but will further improve the climate for exchanges and cooperation between Hong Kong and foreign countries, and protect the law-based operation of international businesses here. The legislation will alleviate the grave concern among local and foreign business communities about the violent and terrorist forces attempting to mess up Hong Kong with the “burn with us” tactic, and will create a more law-based, reliable and stable business environment for foreign investors.

  Therefore, here is our message to the majority of law-abiding citizens and foreign nationals who love Hong Kong: there is absolutely no need to panic, or worry that you may be unfavorably impacted; do not be intimidated or even misled and exploited by those with ulterior motives; and in particular, do not be a rumor-monger yourself, or join the anti-China forces in stigmatizing and demonizing the legislation, still less meddle with or obstruct it.

  Fifth, the Chinese government is rock-firm in upholding national sovereignty, security and development interests. in implementing the “One Country, Two Systems” policy, and in opposing any external interference in Hong Kong affairs.

  The countries and organizations you represent here are all beneficiaries of “One Country, Two Systems” and stakeholders in a prosperous and stable Hong Kong. Enduring success of the policy and Hong Kong serves the common interests of us all.

  It is our hope that you will see the truth and come to your own conclusion on Hong Kong issues. We count on you to respect the facts and the law, view the NPC’s decision in a calm, objective and impartial manner, understand, respect and support China’s legitimate efforts to safeguard national security in Hong Kong, and avoid any misinterpretation or misjudgment.

  We encourage all stakeholders to do what is best for Hong Kong’s prosperity and stability and their own interests here rather than the other way around, stand with the majority of Hong Kong citizens who aspire for stability, growth and the rule of law, and stay away from the separatists, violent terrorists and meddling external forces. Together, let us protect Hong Kong, our common home, and make it a better place.

  We call on the international community to abide by principles of international law and norms governing international relations, including mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity and non-interference, fully and accurately understand and earnestly support “One Country, Two Systems”. We call on its members to avoid hampering China’s endeavor to safeguard national security, and refrain from meddling with Hong Kong affairs, which are China’s internal affairs, in any possible way.

  Thank you. Now I’m happy to take your questions.

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